河海生猛

广府河鲜多,北江入珠江而流,各地支流所产生的溪河既是河妇浣衣之所,亦为河海生猛地。海产丰富,食之也多,“闽、粤人之食品多海味,餐时必佐以汤。粤人又好啖生物,不求火候之深也。”(徐珂《清稗类钞》饮食类)早至明代时广府以河虾入馔甚多,又载“廣州人以大蝦頭為酒杯”(彭大翼《山堂肆考》卷一百八十三器用),可以略微窥见其中河鲜并非罕物而概为日食。然则岭南沿海产出产虽多,旧时交通并不如今日便利,海产多以腌制或者风熏的手段进行保存,言及鲜味却并不如清溪所产。岭南海产多干鲍干鱼,三年困难时期海产几近绝收,近年机船捕捞甚而渔获渐显颓势,更不必提鲜味之寻。

海边岩石产蚝,盐水生蚝熬成浓汁即成蚝油,是不多的调味品,多配时蔬炒。然而海产并不多用蚝油而用豉油烹。老沈以前的居所近海,邻居亦多借船出渔而捕,或偶有青石斑和黄花鱼,则整条错切加葱段姜片,半勺生豉油清蒸,毫无饭店里的身价。黄豆稍加海盐和煮过的水发酵,晾晒多日即出豉油,由此海边黄豆耗得很快。

老沈在供销社做事的时候,黄豆总和面条进量相抵。机制面条则是常出海船家备在舱底的饭食,并非因为南人亦好面食,盖因面条潮后仍可久放,但米湿则滋生霉。迁入城内之后,老沈没怎么吃过鱼鲜,不晓得是曾经沧海的意思还是已经腻味了。

海鲜本不必过多调味,加盐略烹煮即可,河鲜不同,味清淡而显嫩,于是可由河溪中得的河鲜,则成了岭南镬中的常物。岭南的溪并不同于涌,以泥作底而水流缓,不论深浅宽窄,并不承运输职能。因而生物多长、水草摇曳。虾蟹乃最常见物,溪水若有小片沙洲翠堤,则产小蟹蟛蜞。蟛蜞最宜生炒,下饭下酒均佳。关于河虾的名字,老沈自诩对水产博闻,也只能忆三两种虾尾和螯不同的虾。不管是三分尾或是两分尾,反正口感皆归为弹牙。虾苗一般是不捕的,但是小虾可燉毛瓜汤,这种汤和冬瓜薏米汤乃伏天下火之品。

蚬类有产于泥塘,也有产于溪边,暂且归为河鲜。“蜆,南海泮塘海石頭海所産為佳,一名金錂口。劉鋹時取以自奉,禁民不得採”(《光绪广州府志》)。蚬类入得地方志,并被地方官员嗜为珍品,也可谓河鲜中佼者。蚬在夏初的时候和夏稻毛豆同期成熟。蚬难处理,与类似剥毛豆的这种细活,往交给小童或老人开壳。小童也常去泥塘吊蚬和螺,后者用辣椒蒜炒,南粤食单中不多的辣味之一。煮毛豆、蒜炒蚬和炒田螺是消夏季节提味的妙品,日炎热而胃口不佳则辛辣味调之,饮和食德由此生。南方好度数低的果酒,下酒之物则多河鲜。这和同样日炎的蜀地用夫妻肺片等辣极之品发汗解暑又有不同,盖民风地情使然。俗如我吃不得辣,则剥得满地毛豆皮。

河鲜虾蟹鱼,鱼类均为浅水鱼且肉质较海鱼嫩而松软骨多,海鱼纹理特深,肉分块而骨少。则多不胜数,江南水产妙品鲥鱼在岭南也是春季的时令物,“广州谓之三黧之鱼,闽志大者长数尺,春末有之。”(胡世安《异鱼图赞笺》卷一)当时也是江里出产的,严格并不算河鲜。但是售卖时候却并不区分河鱼和江鱼,往海鱼是养在水箱里或者深水鱼就冻在泡沫箱中而江鱼河鱼则剖好待卖,鱼肠和下水另算,现今鲥鱼身价日涨则也进到水箱里了。

上周老沈收到一个大包裹,包裹里是真空保鲜袋装好的咸鱼和虾干,海边二弟说今年吃不完寄来。杏姐当晚温水泡开一把虾干,斩了段咸鱼,空气变得咸湿。一半放入电饭煲共饭蒸;另外一半炒蒜苗。加一盘蒜头炒西洋菜。饭菜端上桌,简朴得和供销社食堂别无二致。老沈夹了块蒸咸鱼,嚼了嚼咽下一口饭。他又夹了一筷子炒虾,放进碗里吃。杏姐从他碗里夹出虾。

“高蛋白吖,你只老嘢食少啲(高蛋白哦,你这老家伙少吃点吧)。”

“哦,不过好似冇咩味啵(哦,不过好像没啥味道呢)。”

生猛不再,人和食物一起变老。

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“河海生猛”的11个回复

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